The successes that accompany women’s study paths are an important means of confirmation. The data tells us that, despite a general gender asymmetry, educated women have fewer disadvantages than those who are not, and this is a relevant fact. This appears from the social economic report for 2022 published by the Umbrian Research Agency (Aur). One of the indicators of the health and development of a territory is represented by its school level. Education empowers individuals to make their own decisions thanks to indispensable knowledge and skills. Through appropriate education, you can gain access to benefits, participate profitably in working life, and contribute to the development of society. A higher level of training ensures the individual a greater potential for growth, but at the same time contributes to the development of the reference territory and more generally to the overall.
In 2020, the distribution of the Umbrian population by educational qualifications shows that just over half of both women and men have high school and university degrees; the remaining half therefore have a low level of education. Women are relatively more numerous than men in the extreme levels and fewer in the intermediate levels. The highest concentration of males and females is still found in upper secondary school, although males show a higher percentage (37.5% versus 32.8% of females). On the other hand, female candidates are more relevant in percentage than what happens among men (19.4% against 14.7% of men).
Women with low educational qualifications (primary school or no education) still make up a fifth of the total (19.7%) and are more than 8 points higher than men, although they have clearly decreased compared to 2004 (34.8% ) and 2010 (28.9%). %). The proportion of women with low educational qualifications is higher in the region than at the average level and in central-northern Italy. For this reason, Umbria is closer to the southern figure. From 2004 to 2020, however, an epochal change occurred: if women with low education prevailed at the beginning of the century, the situation was reversed after less than 20 years.
Compared to men, women have had a more intense growth in academic qualifications: female graduates have almost doubled, reaching a percentage of 52.2% compared to 43.1% in 2010 and 39% in 2004. Instead, they only grew by about 6 points (going from 8.9% in 2004 to 14.7% in 2020). Among men, the highest concentration is among upper secondary school graduates (31.5% in 2004 and 37.5% in 2020). Furthermore, the low educational qualifications among men have more than halved from 24.3 in 2004 to 11.3 in 2020.
The level of school dropouts in 2020 is still significant. Elet (acronym for Early Leavers from Education and Training, those who leave education and training early) is a phenomenon that unfortunately separates Italy to a greater extent than what happens in the European average (13.1% against 9.9%) and represents a brake. on development, with strong consequences for society. Although in Italy there has been considerable progress in terms of limiting early leaving the school and training system, the country has one of the highest rates of Elet in Europe with large territorial gaps between the north (11%) and the south of the country (16.3%).
In Umbria, the phenomenon in 2020 was 11.2%; the peculiarity that seems to emerge in the last year is a relatively greater involvement of the female sphere. In this way, the situation applies in 2019, where the male component prevailed in percentage. The girls who dropped out of school between 2019 and 2020 increased in Umbria by almost 4 percentage points, in contrast to the boys who remained stable. In 2020, Umbria is the only region where the proportion of Elet is higher among women. In the order of the regions, in 2020 Umbria is in 5th place for the largest proportion of women who have moved away from education, after Sicily, Campania, Puglia and Calabria. On the other hand, Umbria ranks among the four most virtuous regions for male dispersion, in a range that goes from 23.4% in Sicily to 10.2% in Emilia Romagna. Therefore, there is a very different situation in comparable order with the other regions in relation to gender: Umbria appears for data on male dispersal, instead it is among the last places for the female one.
Istat data confirms this: in Italy, only 33.2% of young people who have left education early manage to find a job, compared to 42.6% at European level. This data also has a strong gender connotation to the detriment of women. Girls find it more difficult to enter the world of work once they have left their studies: only 21.1% can find a job compared to 40.5% of boys.