Covid-19, the protective role of the intestinal microbiota in children

A study by Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital characterizes for the first time the microbial profile that appears to protect the little ones from serious forms of the disease. Research results published in “Limits in cell and infection microbiology”.

Characterized for the first time the intestinal microbiota profile of children affected by COVID-19, which, thanks to special anti-inflammatory properties, appear to protect them from serious forms of the disease. The identity comes from researchers from Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital, who conducted a study – the first at an international level – dedicated to the relationship between the microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. The research, just published in the scientific journal Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, suggests possible therapeutic interventions on the microbiota to help control the disease. The study of the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota in pediatric patients with Covid-19 was carried out by the Human Microbiome Research Unit, led by Prof. Lorenza Putignani, as part of the project “Cactus – Immunological studies in children affected by COVID and acute diseases “coordinated by Prof. Paolo Palma. The study made use of the clinical collaboration between specialists from different departments of the hospital.

“The research included – explains the pediatric hospital – 88 patients with symptoms of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted between March and September 2020 at the Covid Center in Palidoro and at the Gianicolo del Bambino Gesù site. The result of nasopharyngeal grafting, was divided into 2 groups: patients with Covid-19 (inoculation positive) and patients with other infection (inoculation negative). to define the composition of the microbiota. Data from the two groups were then compared with each other and with data from a control group of healthy children. In addition, the study of the function of the microbiota was also performed for the group with Covid-19 ”.

THE RESULTS

The research showed that the intestinal microbiota in children with Covid-19 as well as adult life is altered and poorly diversified compared to patients with other infections or healthy children. Specifically, it was rich in bacteria with a predominantly pro-inflammatory effect (Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria) and poor in some “good” microorganisms (Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Akkermansia, Blautia, Ruminococcus), which promote the maintenance of intestinal balance (homeostasis).

However, again compared to the group of healthy people or with other infections, a significant increase in Faecalibacterium was also detected in children with Covid-19, a bacterium known for its beneficial and anti-inflammatory properties that support the immune system in defending the disease. crop. In adult patients with the most severe form of COVID-19, the absence of this bacterium is accurately described as a severity index. In addition, the functional study of the microbiota from the COVID group revealed the increase in some processes of microbial metabolism, which also indirectly support an adequate immunological response.

INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA AND COVID-19 PROTECTION

Taken together, the data collected by the researchers from Bambino Gesù highlight a potential link between the function of the intestinal microbiota and the clinical course of COVID-19 in pediatric age. The research group’s analyzes support the hypothesis that children’s microbiota with its anti-inflammatory properties – compared to adults – helps to reduce the severity of the infection. The study opens up the hypothesis of therapeutic interventions on the microbiota to help control the development of important diseases, including Covid-19.

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