Inclusion of students in situations of economic-social, physical, psychological disadvantage: a model for PDP

The protocol on “Inclusion of students in disadvantaged situations” contains information on the practice of inclusion of students in a situation of socio-economic, linguistic and cultural disadvantage; defines each individual’s roles and tasks; draws the lines for all these activities, which aim to promote a real learning path and improve the integration process for students in an unfavorable situation. As regards pupils in a disadvantaged situation, the reference legislation is constituted by the Ministerial Directive of 27 December 2012 “Action tools for pupils with special educational needs and territorial arrangements for school inclusion” and by subsequent MIUR circulars no. 8 of 6/03/2013 and Nr. 2563 of 22.11.2013.

The scholastic disadvantage

The scholastic disadvantage – as excellently underlined by the “Reception Protocol for Students with Special Educational Needs”, developed and used in the prestigious “Vincenzo Randi” State Comprehensive Institute of Ravenna, competently headed by the school principal Prof. Mirco Banzola – can be classified into three broad areas :

  • socio-economic: linked to a particular social situation
  • cultural: linked to difficult situations with insertion in a different cultural context
  • linguistic: linked to lack of knowledge of the Italian language

The disadvantage area

It should be noted, however, that the disadvantage area is actually broader: “Each student, with continuity or in certain periods, may manifest special educational needs: either for physical, biological, physiological or even psychological, social reasons, compared to which schools have to offer an appropriate and personal response “(Ministerial Directive of 27 December 2012). These types of BES must be identified on the basis of objective elements (such as a report from the social service operators), or on the basis of well-founded psychopedagogical and didactic considerations. For these students (…) it is just as possible to activate individualized and personal paths, as well as to take compensatory tools and dispensational measures (eg dispensation from reading aloud and activities where reading is evaluated, fast writing under dictation, etc.). ), using the same methods as indicated above. In this case, care will be taken to monitor the effectiveness of the interventions so that they are implemented in the strictly necessary time. Therefore, the dispensational measures, in the above cases, in contrast to the suffering situations documented by diagnosis, will have a transient and relevant educational aspect, thus favoring pedagogical and didactic strategies through personalized paths rather than compensatory tools and dispensational measures. In any case, it will not be possible to access the exemption from the written tests in a foreign language, except in the presence of a specific clinically diagnosed disorder, in accordance with the provisions of Art. 6, in Ministerial Executive Order no. 5669 of 12 July 2011 and attached guidelines “(MIUR circular no. 8 of 6 / 03-2013). Note 2563 of 22/12/2013 clarifies some points.

It is necessary to distinguish between:

  • general learning difficulties = difficulties that can be observed in temporary periods in each student;
  • difficult learning difficulties = difficulties which have a more stable character or which present a greater degree of complexity;
  • learning disorders = has a permanent character and a neurobiological basis.

It is not enough to discover a learning difficulty to claim that one is facing a student with special needs. A BES should only be recognized in the case of a “disorder” (with a neurobiological basis and a permanent character): “The discovery of a pure learning disability should not lead to the activation of a specific path with the consequent compilation of a Personalized Didactic Plan “.

Decision of the Class Council / Teaching Team

If there is no certification L. 104/92 or L.170 / 10, the CdC / Teaching Team decides, regardless of the parents’ request: “It is repeated that even in the presence of requests from parents accompanied by diagnoses, the right to certification of disability or SLD, the Class Council is independent in the decision on whether to prepare a personal didactic plan.

For a student with unspecified difficulties, the consent of the CdC / Teaching Team is required to adopt the PDP .: “Ultimately (…), in case of unspecified difficulties, only if within the class council (…) agrees to evaluate the effectiveness of specific tools, this may involve the adoption and therefore the preparation of a personal didactic plan with any compensatory tools and / or dispensing measures.

Securing learning objectives

“It must be reiterated that all these initiatives in any case aim to offer more educational opportunities through the flexibility of the courses, certainly not to lower the level of learning”. “The Personal Didactic Plan must therefore be understood as an additional tool to adapt the method to the student’s needs, or rather to his person, and leave the decision on the didactic choices, the paths to be followed and the modalities to be left to the teachers exclusively. estimates of evaluation “.

Course of didactic continuity in the department

It is the CdC / Teaching Team – as emphasized in the “Reception Protocol for Students with Special Educational Needs” prepared and in use in the prestigious “Vincenzo Randi” State Comprehensive Institute of Ravenna – that evaluates whether and what special education needs the student needs. has and also what documentation may need to be requested to assess the situation (the important thing is that the decision is recorded and motivated; a copy of the decision must be sent to the Instrumental Functional Teacher for the inclusion of students with other BES for the formalities). As part of the pedagogical continuity path within the department, the class councils in the first year of the primary school cannot disregard the personal didactic plans developed by the primary school teachers, which will normally be confirmed provisionally also for the upper secondary school; if the class council for reasons decides not to confirm them, the decision must be recorded and motivated; a copy of the decision must be sent to the Instrumental Functional Teacher for the inclusion of students with other BES for the formalities.

Roles and tasks for the characters involved

The family

The family, a specialist, the national health services can request the preparation of a personal path, but the final decision to activate it lies solely with the CoC / Teaching Team.

Class Council / Teaching Team

The decision to create a PDP is solely with the class council or the teaching team. Where there is no clinical certification or diagnosis, the Class Council or Teaching Team will appropriately motivate, record them, the decisions made based on pedagogical and didactic considerations, and will assess the possibility of activating a PDP, following a discussion with the family. The personal path – as emphatically underlined by the “Reception Protocol for Students with Special Educational Needs” developed and used in the prestigious “Vincenzo Randi” State Comprehensive Institute of Ravenna, competently led by the school principal Prof. Mirco Banzola – will not last longer than the school year, and its adoption is intended to promote the student’s academic success, but not to guarantee it.

Enable personal tutoring

Schools – as emphasized in the “Admission Protocol for Students with Special Educational Needs” developed and in use at the prestigious “Vincenzo Randi” State Comprehensive Institute of Ravenna – can make use of compensatory tools and measures for all students with special educational needs. exemptions in accordance with the implementing provisions of Act 170/2010 8 and Ministerial Decree 5699/2011) better described in the attached guidelines. Once the class council has decided to activate personal teaching, it can do so:

  • indicate in the minutes of the class council or teaching team meeting the description of the situation and the strategies identified to support the student’s academic career;
  • preparation of a PDP in the manner and at the time indicated below: before the end of September / beginning of October, the coordinator will conduct an interview with the family to gather the necessary information to document the situation to the class council / the teaching team; in October: after an observation period, the teachers will take measures to prepare the PDP and share them with the student and family involved; in November, or teachers will carry out the final draft and signing of the PDP by teachers, parents, pupil and school principal; at the end of the first evaluation period, the PDPs will be deposited in the secretariat of the students’ personal folders; throughout the school year, the class council / teaching team will work with the student to understand the level of knowledge and acceptance of their difficulties; throughout the school year, the class council will monitor the PDP through ongoing checks; after the final review, the coordinator, together with the class council / teaching team, will verify the adequacy of the PDP, and evaluate the need for any improvement changes with regard to the adopted tools, measures and methods.

Requests made in the year submitted

If the request from the family, from the social services or from a specialist is made after March 31 – as emphasized in the “Admission Protocol for Students with Special Educational Needs”, prepared and in use in the prestigious State Comprehensive Institute “Vincenzo Randi”. by Ravenna – there is no longer time to prepare a PDP that follows the expected format, therefore the indication of the description in the minutes of how to proceed will be privileged and an excerpt of the minutes will be deposited in the Secretariat. A copy of the decision must be sent to the Instrumental Functional Teacher for the inclusion of students with other BES for the formalities.

The phases of the inclusion project and the modalities for the didactic intervention

Regarding the phases of the integration project and the modalities of the didactic effort, it should be noted that for the students who are part of this SEN category, the school is:

  • will make sure to monitor the effectiveness of the interventions so that they are carried out in the strictly necessary time;
  • will use in a transient form compensatory tools and dispensational measures (as opposed to situations of disruption documented by certification), in an appropriate manner the didactic aspects deemed necessary, and in a more continuous manner favor personalized educational and didactic strategies;
  • will take into account the rules concerning the conduct of the state examinations or the annual surveys of learning which will ultimately be provided by the Ministry: it should be noted that compensatory and dispensing measures have so far been used to conduct the state examination are not intended for students with special needs without certification.

The PDP model for vulnerable students

Attached is an excellent personal didactic plan for students with other special education needs (BES-Dir. Min. 27/12/2012; CM n. 8 of 6/03/2013), socio-economic and cultural disadvantage and students with a defined illness and implemented by “Vittorino Da Feltre” State Comprehensive Institute of Turin masterfully led by Rector Professor Giorgio Brandone, a true icon of professionalism and management competence. The preparation of the PDP is carried out after an observation period by the student. The PDP is approved by the class council / team, signed by the school leader, by the teachers and by the family (and by the student if deemed appropriate).

Pdp model for socio-economic and cultural disadvantage

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