Turing machine, connections

There 2022 high school oral exam starts by selecting a starting point to create one interdisciplinary discourse. Should the material be a photo of the famous Turing machinewe give you an example of links between the different subjects.

Turing machine, computer science maturity links

The Turing machine is named after its inventor and representative the first absolute computer prototype. It’s about an ideal logical computer which has an infinite band divided into cells and reading and writing units. Each cell can contain a limited number of symbols including b (empty) indicating spaces, 0 and 1, X and Y acting as placeholders.
L ‘control unit gifts a limited number of instructions and the machine can consequently execute a limited series of instructions capable of solving algorithms also very complex. The band, which extends in both directions, on the other hand, acts as a stimulus for input, output and memory.
Self software concept it can be traced back to the Turing machine as it can be coded as a number and vice versa.
Alan Turing in short, it is considered the inventor of the computer as his car is a computing agent model which demonstrates the possibilities of a computer: if there is a problem, it can be calculated, then there will be a Turing machine capable of solving it, otherwise it will be called insoluble or erratic.

Oral maturity connects Italian literature and the Turing machine

In Italian literature of the twentieth century, we are already beginning to talk about somehow artificial intelligence, which clearly considers the ever-increasing impact that rapid computer advances would have on humanity. Among all the greatest writers of the second half of the twentieth century in Italy, in particular, Italo Calvino he engages in many novels and essays with a science fiction background, and among all the writings, the one that comes closest to the concept of artificial intelligence is certainly the essay with the title ‘Cybernetics and ghosts (notes on fiction as a combinatorial process‘included in’A stone above‘, a collection of discourses on literature.
The combinatorial process studies all kinds of break down and combine simple data and in the literature, in connection with structuralismthis operating mode has yielded many results, especially in Calvino, whose many novels are born precisely by his ability to harmonize the different possibilities of reality (e.g The castle with crossed destinies, The American lessons, The invisible cities) which does not correspond to a literary art, but to a vision of the world.
Calvino in ‘Cybernetics and Ghosts’ especially insists on the concept discreetin contrast to coherentwith reference to the term mathematical and predominant the world as a reality divided into separate parts and separated from which it does not even escape thinking and brain activity: “The thought, which until recently appeared to us as something fluid, evoked linear images in us like a flowing river or a thread running out, or gaseous images, like a kind of cloud, so much so that it was often called the “spirit.” . – today we usually see it as a series of discontinuous states, of combinations of impulses on a limited number (a huge but finite number) of sensory and control organs;. Electronic brainsif they are still far from producing all the functions of a human brain, however, they are already able to supply us a theoretical model convincing for the most complex processes in our memory, our mental associations, our imagination, our conscience. Shannon, Weiner [sic], by Neumann, Turinghas radically changed our image mental processes. Instead of the iridescent cloud that we carried in our heads until yesterday, and whose thickening or spread we tried to realize by describing intangible psychological states, the shadowy landscapes of the soul, – instead of all this today we feel the very fast passage of signals on the complex circuits connecting the relays, diodes, transistors into which our cap is plugged“.

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The Turing machine and the story: links to maturity envelopes

The invention of the Turing machine goes back to 1936 and played a crucial role as it had a major impact the fate of twentieth-century history.
The machine actually below World War II it was a very powerful tool as it was used by the British to decode the German coded messages.
Alan Turing, in fact, an ingenious mathematician who is considered one of the fathers of computer science, was, thanks to the electronic computer equipped with the memory he designed, able to decipher the codes of the Nazis who communicated to the submarines the military targets in their sights. Bypassing Enigma, the machine in the service of the German forces to encrypt and decrypt messages, 14 million people were rescued, thus contributing to the final victory of the British.

The Turing Machine: Links English oral literature Baccalaureate

One of the ancestors of the robots is determined Frankenstein novel and homonymous character born of the pen of Mary Shelley. In this novel considered the first in science fiction in horror colors, the English author presents a monster fruit of a scientist’s creative genius, in which she encloses all human fears of technological progress.
Frankenstein actually represents everything that is different, unusual, unknown and therefore causes horror in man.
The first form of artificial intelligence created in the literature is thus presented as one something bizarre and unnaturalimpression fed not randomly by eerie features of the monster.
In fact, Dr. Frankenstein did not care about the formal and aesthetic aspect of his monstrous being, as his only interest was in wanting to create life: a being who is not only alive but also thinking as it is endowed with its own intelligence.
If the novel in literature is hailed as one of the cornerstones of English and international literature, it is nonetheless considered in bioethics as a negative example of allusions to illegal and unethical experiments performed by the physician.

Mathematics

That binary system it is a number system two-based contrary to that decimal which is based on ten.
A binary number is a sequence of called binary digits little. Each number has only the values 0 and 1 and as in the decimal system, also in binary they can be done arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division:

    Add on: 0 + 0 = 0, 0 + 1 = 1, 1 + 0 = 1; 1 + 1 = 0 carries 1 to the column on the left;
    Subtraction: 0-0 = 0; 1-0 = 1; 0-1 = 0 with loan of 1 from the left column;
    Multiplication: 0 x 0 = 0; 0 x1 = 1; 1 x 0 = 0; 1 x 1 = 1;
    Division: can be calculated using this formula: D = Q xd + R.

Oral Baccalaureate: Philosophy and Turing Machine

Studies regardingartificial intelligence made in the field of information technology has also greatly influenced the philosophical and social sciences.
To verify the intelligence of a machine and therefore its ability to think, Turing in 1950 elaborated ‘Turing test‘but his experiment was based only on inaccurate performance.
Due to the inability to provide scientifically sound answers, they have arisen in philosophy two streams who thinks that one intelligent machine is the result of:

    Weak artificial intelligence (weak AI): a machine must be built with defined rules and then be intelligent. A computer will therefore never be on a par with the human mind, but will only be able to partially approach human cognitive processes, far from complexity;
    Strong artificial intelligence (strong AI): a programmed machine has an intelligence that is indistinguishable from the human, and thus reaches the same complexity. This theory therefore considers the human mind as a result of calculations as well as the reasoning itself, and therefore perfectly reproducible with artificial intelligence.

With artificial intelligence we mean all those systems that just can not run performance is considered intelligentbut who within them also have the ability to to collect and process knowledge through processes that are unique to man such as deductions, reasoning, learning, etc.).
Next to these theories are there connectionisma current that instead argues that in order to restore man’s same cognitive abilities, we must “mimic the functional and physiological properties of the brain and its cells, for example through artificial neural networks“(Treccani).
The searches of neuroscience they take place precisely in this perspective, for example, trying to give to machines emotions, sensory stimuli and bodily needs. In this way, they try to design different and specialized artificial intelligence models depending on the purpose for which they were created.

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