Audi “quattro” systems: 40 years of history
“Quattro” is a name that has always meant four-wheel drive for the Ingolstadt manufacturer. A technology that debuted in series production in 1980, 42 years ago. Since then, more than 12 million cars have been sold with the quattro system and today, 130 versions of models “classified” as quattro are available on the list.
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In a world dominated by electronics, there is still Audi with retro taste. In reality, they are very modern cars, see e.g. RS 6. But when it comes to the quattro four-wheel drive system, the training is technically more traditional than other models. Though with all the details of the case, which clearly separates the brand.
Brief introduction to introducing one permanent four-wheel drive, equipped with self-locking center differential. The so equipped cars have longitudinal motor and tiptronic gearbox with torque converter. Depending on the driving conditions, the compressive force can reach a maximum of 70% at the front and up to 85% at the rear.
The moment of four Ultra
It was one of the innovations a few years ago. System combined with S tronic dual clutch transmissionwhich is present for example on models such as Q5. It consists mainly of two pack clutches. The first comes out of the gearbox while the second comes out of the rear differential. Depending on how much the slats are “open” or “closed” (see boards), torque and force are transmitted between axles and wheels (see rear).
So far the most mechanical component, because it is the electronics that monitor the operation of the Ultra system. Electronics that do so in a predictable way that prepares the system for the slightest sign of loss of grip. For example, the brain recognizes the moment a wheel reaches the limit of grip. In one case, it transmits instantaneous torque according to the logic of better traction.
A standardized but effective solution
On family cars A3 and of it Q3system four reveals itself in the form of a permanent four-wheel drive, equipped with an electro-hydraulic slat clutch, located in front of the rear differential. The discs inside the package are compressed thanks to an electro-hydraulic pump.
This generates the friction that connects the main drive shaft to the secondary shaft connected to the rear differential. This is how the torque adjustment takes place at the rear. A passage that naturally varies according to the pressure exerted by the aforementioned pump, naturally established by the electronics that monitor the car’s grip.
The variant in the R8 theme
A technical model similar to the one mentioned above relates to the supercar R8. The sportswoman with central rear engine located longitudinallyessentially has it same system but rotated 180 degrees. In this case multi-plate coupling it is inserted in the front differential of the Audi R8. That S Tronic gearboxMounted behind the V10 engine, it has a rear differential lock.
With RS 3 you change steps
The latest sports car of the four rings debuted RS torque divider system. It is clear that the systems you have read about so far are not the exclusive work of the German group, even though they have been tailored to their models.
Open and closed parentheses, why RS 3 is equipped with an assembly consisting of a pair of electro-hydraulic slat couplings. They are located at the exit of the rear (open) differential. So one is to the right and one to the left. Opening and closing are controlled by the electronics. Then there are basic “fixed” settings that change according to the selected driving style. This unit not only regulates the torque between the wheels on the rear axle, but also between the front and rear axles.
Though e-tron GT (also applies to the RS version) is among the latest electrical discoveries of the Ingolstadt house, it is also the one that boasts less complex quattro 100% electric four-wheel drive. In other words, there are two electric motors, one for each axle, that are responsible for controlling torque and traction between the front and rear wheels. Similar system is also used by the quattro versions of Q4 e-tron.
From a technical point of view, it is much simpler, lighter and more compact compared to the above models as no mechanical components are involved. And above all, it boasts the fastest reactions, being the main interface for two electric motors.
There are no two without three
About the subject electric four-wheel drivethere is still a model to consider that actually represents the last of the 7 votes available when talking about four. A technology they have Audi e-tron S and Audi e-tron S Sportback and which somehow resembles the format of the one present on the new RS 3. Only in this casetorque vector effect guaranteed solely by electric motorswhich are specific three. Two are located along the back and one is located in front.
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